Martyn J. Fogg (Probability Research Group, London, UK).

With previous assistance from: Tom Meyer (University of Colorado), Stephen Gillett (University of Reno, Nevada), Robert Haynes (York University, Ontario) and Richard Cathcart.


A listing of literature related to planetary engineering follows below. The entries are placed into one of three categories:




  • Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, National Academy Press, (1991).
  • F.P. Davidson and C.L. Meador (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: Global Infrastructure Solutions, Ellis Horwood, London (1992).
  • T. Gehrels (Ed.), Hazards due to Comets and Asteroids, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, (1994).
  • Kitzinger, U. and Frankel, E.G (Eds.)., Macro-Engineering and the Earth: World Projects for the Year 2000 and Beyond, Horwood Publishing Ltd., Chichester (1998).
  • J.S. Lewis, Comet and Asteroid Impact Hazards on a Populated Earth: Computer Modeling, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2000).
  • R.G. Watts (Ed.), Engineering Response to Global Climate Change, Lewis, Boca Raton, FL (1997).
  • R.G. Watts (Ed.), Innovative Energy Strategies for CO2 Stabilization, Cambridge University Press (2002).
  • V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, Springer (2006).


  • E.R. Abraham, et al., “Importance of Stirring in the Development of an Iron-Fertilized Phytoplankton Bloom,” Nature407, 727-730 (2000).
  • T.J. Ahrens and A.W. Harris, “Deflection and Fragmentation of Near-Earth Asteroids,” Nature360, 429-433 (1992).
  • B. Allenby, “Earth Systems Engineering and Management,” IEE Technology and Society Magazine, Winter Issue, 10-24 (2000-2001).
  • S.B. Alpert, D.F. Spencer and G. Hidy, “Biospheric Options for Mitigating Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels,” Energy Conversion and Management33(5-8), 729-736 (1992).
  • V. Badescu and R.B. Cathcart, “Environmental Thermodynamic Limitations on Global Human Population,” Int. J. Global Energy Issues25, 129-140 (2006).
  • G. Bala, “Problems with Geoengineering Schemes to Combat Climate Change,” Current Science96, 41-48 (2009).
  • G. Bala and K. Caldeira, “Mitigation of Anthropogenic Climate Change via a Macro-Engineering Scheme: Climate Modeling Results,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 65-86 Springer (2006).
  • L. Bengtsson, “Geoengineering to Confine Climate Change: Is it at all Feasible?” Climatic Change77, 229-234 (2006).
  • D. Bodansky, “May We Engineer the Climate?” Climatic Change33(3), 309-321 (1996).
  • P.W. Boyd et al., “A Mesoscale Phytoplankton Bloom in the Polar Southern Ocean Stimulated by Iron Fertilization,” Nature407, 695-702 (2000).
  • V. Brovkin, V. Petoukhov, M. Claussen, E. Bauer, D. Archer and C. Jaeger, “Geoengineering Climate by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: Earth System Vulnerability to Technological Failure,” Climatic Change92, 243-259 (2009).
  • R.B. Cathcart, “Macroengineering and Terraforming: Building Modernised and Additional Functional Regions,” Specul. Sci. Technol.14, 34-40 (1991).
  • R.B. Cathcart, “Land Art as Global Warming or Cooling Antidote,” Specul. Sci. Technol.21, 65-72 (1998).
  • R.B. Cathcart and M.M. Cirkovic, “Extreme Climate Control Membrane Structures,” V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 151-174,  Springer (2006).
  • R.J. Charlson, S.E. Schwartz, J.M. Hales, R.D. Cess, J.A. Coakley, J.E. Hansen, and D.J. Hofmann, “Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols,” Science255, 423-430 (1992).
  • R.J. Cicerone, S. Elliott and R.P. Turco, “Reduced Antarctic Ozone Depletions in a Model with Hydrocarbon Injections,” Science254, 1191-1194 (1991).
  • R.J. Cicerone, S. Elliott and R.P. Turco, “Global Environmental Engineering,” Nature356, 9 (1992).
  • R.J. Cicerone, “Geoengineering: Encouraging Research and Overseeing Implementation,” Climatic Change77, 221-226 (2006).
  • D.J. Cooper, A.J. Watson and P.D. Nightingale, “Large Decrease in Ocean Surface CO2 Fugacity in Response to In-Situ Iron Fertilisation,” Nature383, 511-513 (1996).
  • P.J. Crutzen, “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?” Climatic Change77, 211-219 (2006).
  • H.J.W. DeBaar, “Options for Enhancing the Storage of Carbon Dioxide in the Oceans -A Review,” Energy Conversion and Management33(5-8), 635-642 (1992).
  • R.E. Dickinson, “Climate Engineering: A Review of Aerosol Approaches to Changing the Global Energy Balance,” Climatic Change33(3), 279-290 (1996).
  • G.R. DiTullio et al., “Rapid and Early Export of Phaeocystis antarctica blooms in the Ross Sea, Antarctica,” Nature404, 595-598 (2000).
  • F.J. Dyson, “Can We Control the Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere?” Energy2, 287-291 (1977).
  • J.T. Early, “Space-based Solar Shield to Offset Greenhouse Effect,” JBIS42, 567-569 (1989).
  • K.A. Ehricke, “Space Light: Space Industrial Enhancement of the Solar Option,” Acta Astronautica6, 1515-1633 (1979).
  • K.A. Ehricke, “Contributions of Space Reflector Technology to Food Production, Local Weather Manipulation and Energy Supply, 1985-2020,” JBIS34, 511-518 (1981).
  • P.G. Falkowski, “The Ocean’s Invisible Forest,” Sci. Am.287(2), 38-45 (2002).
  • B. Govindasamy and K. Caldeira, “Geoengineering Earth’s Radiation Balance to Mitigate CO2-induced Climate Change,” Geophys. Res. Lett.27, 2141-2144 (2000). 1.04 mb pdf download
  • W.J. Harrison, R.F. Wendlandt and E.D. Sloan,  “Geochemical Interactions Resulting from Carbon Dioxide Disposal on the Sea Floor,” Applied Geochemistry10(4), 461-475 (1995).
  • L.D.D. Harvey, “Mitigating the Atmospheric CO2 Increase and Ocean Acidification by Adding Limestone Powder to Upwelling Regions,” J. Geophys. Res., C04028, doi:10.1029/2007JC004373, (2008).
  • H.A. Haugen and L.I. Eide, “CO2 Capture and Disposal – the Realism of Large Scale Scenarios,” Energy Conversion and Management37(6-8), 1061-1066 (1996).
  • R.N. Hoffman, “Controlling the Global Weather,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society83(2), 241-248 (2002).
  • M.I. Hoffert, K. Caldeira, G. Benford, et al., “Advanced Technology Paths to Global Climate Stability: Energy for a Greenhouse Planet,” Science298, 981-987 (2002).
  • K.A. Holsapple, “On Nuking Menacing Asteroids,” Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXIV, 1999H (2003).
  • T. Honjou, and O.H. San, “Huge CO2 Storage in Antarctic Ice Sheet,” Energy Conversion and Management36(6-9), 501-504 (1995).
  • P.M. Huagan and H. Drange, “Sequestration of CO2 in the Deep Ocean by Shallow Injection,” Nature357, 318-320 (1992).
  • H.S. Hudson, “A Space Parasol as a Countermeasure Against the Greenhouse Effect,” JBIS44, 139-141 (1991).
  • P.G. Jarvis, “Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Forests,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B.324, 369-392 (1989).
  • F. Joos, J.L. Sarmiento and U. Siegenthaler, “Estimates of the Effect of Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization on Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations,” Nature349, 772-775 (1991).
  • D..Jamieson, “Ethics and Intentional Climate Change,” Climatic Change, 33(3), 323-326 (1996).
  • D.W. Keith, “Geoengineering the Climate: History and Prospect,” Ann. Rev. Energy and Environment, 25, 245-284 (2000).
  • D.W. Keith and H. Dowlatabadi, “A Serious Look at Geoengineering,” EOS73, 289, 292-293 (1992).
  • W.W. Kellogg and S.H. Schneider, “Climate Stabilization: For Better or for Worse?” Science186, 1163-1172 (1974).
  • H.S. Kheshgi, “The Effectiveness of Marine Carbon Dioxide Disposal”, Energy, 19(9), 967-974 (1994).
  • H.S. Kheshgi, “Sequestering Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide by Increasing Ocean Alkalinity,” Energy20(9), 915-922 (1994).
  • J.T. Kiehl, “Geoengineering Climate Change: Treating the Symptom Over the Cause?”, Climatic Change77, 227-228.
  • Z.S. Kolber, et al., “Iron Limitation of Phytoplankton Photosynthesis in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature371, 145-149 (1994).
  • K.S. Lackner, et al.., “Carbon Dioxide Disposal in Carbonate Minerals,” Energy20, 1153-1170 (1995).
  • M.G. Lawrence, “The Geoengineering Dilemma: To Speak or Not to Speak?” Climatic Change77, 245-248 (2006).
  • J. Lovelock, “A Geophysiologist’s Thoughts on Geoengineering,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0135 (2008).
  • D. Lunt, A. Ridgwell, P.J. Valdes,  and A. Seale, “Sunshade World: A Fully Coupled GCM Evaluation of the  Climatic Impacts of Geoengineering,” Geophys Res. Lett35, L12710, doi:10.1029/2008GL033674, (2008).
  • M.C. MacCracken, “Geoengineering: Worthy of Cautious Evaluation?” Climatic Change77, 235-243 (2006).
  • C. Marchetti, “On Geoengineering and the CO2 Problem,” Climatic Change1, 59-68 (1977).
  • G. Marland (Ed.), “Special Section on Geoengineering,” Climatic Change, 33(3), 275-336 (1996).
  • G. Marland, “Could We/Should We Engineer the Earth’s Climate?” Climatic Change, 33(3), 275-278 (1996).
  • G. Marland and S. Marland, “Should we Store Carbon in Trees?” Water, Air and Soil Pollution64 (1-2), 181-196 (1992).
  • R.H. Marrs, “The Control and Correction of Human Induced Changes in the Earth’s Biospheric Environment – Restoration Ecology,” JBIS54, 225-228 (2001).
  • J.H. Martin, S.E. Fitzwater, and R.M. Gordon, “Iron Deficiency Limits Phytoplankton Growth in Antarctic Waters,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 4, 5-12 (1990).
  • J.H. Martin, R.M. Gordon, and S.E. Fitzwater, “Iron in Antartic Waters,” Nature345, 156-158 (1990).
  • J.H. Martin, et al., “Testing the Iron Hypothesis in Ecosystems of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature371, 123-129 (1994).
  • K. Matsumoto and B.K. Mignone, “Model Simulations of Carbon Sequestration in the North-west Pacific by Direct Injection,” J. Oceanography, 61, 747-760 (2005).
  • E. Matuo, et al., “CO2 Fixation by Promoting Large-Scale Marine Food Production,” Energy Conversion and Management36(6-9), 907-910 (1995).
  • M. Mautner, and K. Parks, “Space-based Control of the Climate,” in Engineering, Construction and Operations in Space II: Volume 2, Proceedings of Space ’90, American Society of Civil Engineers (1990).
  • M. Mautner, “A Space-based Solar Screen Against Climatic Warming,” JBIS44, 135-138 (1991).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Minimum Mass Solar Shield for Terrestrial Climate Control,” JBIS55, 307-311 (2002).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Deflection of Near-Earth Asteroids by Kinetic Energy Impacts from Retrograde Orbits,” Planet. Space Sci., 52, 587-590 (2004).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Planetary Macro-Engineering Using Orbiting Solar Reflectors,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 215-250 Springer (2006).
  • H.J. Melosh and I.V. Nemchinov, “Solar Asteroid Diversion,” Nature366, 21-22 (1993).
  • R.A. Metzger and G. Benford, “Sequestering of Atmospheric Carbon through Permanent Disposal of Crop Residue,” Climatic Change49, 11-19 (2001).
  • F.M.M. Morel, J.R. Reinfelder, S.B. Roberts, C.B. Chamberlain, J.G. Lee, and D. Yee, “Zinc and Carbon Co-limitation of Marine Phytoplankton,” Nature369, 740-742 (1994).
  • C.N. Murray, L. Visintini and B. Henry, “Permanent Storage of Carbon-Dioxide in the Marine Environment – the Solid CO2 Penetrator”, Energy Conversion and Management37( 6-8), 1067-1072 (1996).
  • J.C. Orr and J.L.Sarmiento, “Potential of Marine Macroalgae as a Sink for CO2: Constraints from a 3-D General Circulation Model of the Global Ocean”, Water, Air and Soil Pollution64, 405-421 (1992).
  • H. Ozawa et al., “Research of Arid Land Afforestation Technologies for Carbon Dioxide Fixation,” Energy Conversion and Management36( 6-9), 911-914 (1995).
  • J.M. Pearce et al., “Natural Occurences as Analogues for the Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide,” Energy Conversion and Management, 37( 6-8), 1123-1128 (1996).
  • J. Pearson, J. Oldson and E. Levin, “Earth Rings for Planetary Environment Control,” Acta Astronautica, 58, 44-57 (2006) .
  • T-H. Peng, and W.S. Broecker, “Dynamical Limitations on the Antarctic Iron Fertilization Strategy,” Nature349, 227-229 (1991).
  • S.S. Penner, A.M. Schneider, and E.M. Kennedy, “Active Measures for Reducing the Global Climatic Impacts of Escalating CO2 Concentrations,” Acta Astronautica11, 345-348 (1984).
  • R.L. Ritschard, “Marine Algae as a CO2 Sink,” Water, Air and Soil Pollution64, 289-303 (1992).
  • K.I. Roy, “Solar Sails: An Answer to Global Warming,” CP552, Space Technology and Applications International Forum, American Institute of Physics, New York (2001).
  • C. Sagan and S.J. Ostro, “Dangers of Asteroid Deflection,” Nature368, 501 (1994).
  • B.D. Santer et al., “A Search for Human Influences on the Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere,” Nature382, 39-46 (1996). 
  • J.L. Sarmiento, “Slowing the Buildup of CO2 in the Atmosphere by Iron Fertilization: A Comment,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles5, 1-2 (1991).
  • T.C. Schelling, “The Economic Diplomacy of Geoengineering,” Climatic Change33(3), 303-307 (1996).
  • R.D. Schuiling, “Mineral Sequestration of CO2 and Recovery of the Heat of Reaction,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54,  21-29, Springer (2006).
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