L’annuncio di questi giorni è della Nasa: ruscelli di acqua salata scorrono su Marte. Resta ancora da capire da dove arriva questa acqua, se dall’umidità nell’atmosfera, da uno strato di ghiaccio o da una falda sotterranea. 

Era un’idea fissa di Werner von Braun, l’ingegnere tedesco, quella di andare su Marte. Per le spedizioni occorrerà concretizzare un sistema che consenta la trasformazione dell’atmosfera rarefatta con una più consona a quella della vita dell’uomo. Le soluzioni sono studiate da tempo ed è solo questione di trovare i soldi per realizzare i progetti. Il costo per mettere a punto una missione umana su Marte dovrebbe essere di circa 500 miliardi di dollari! 

Il modo per rendere Marte adatto alla vita umana (terraforming) è un gioco da ragazzi: Elon Musk propone di bombardare Marte con testate nucleari. Altri vogliono catturare un grosso asteroide vicino alla Terra per reindirizzarlo verso Marte e mandarlo a sbattere contro uno dei poli di Marte.

In una recente conferenza Biotech, ospitata dalla DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), l’agenzia ha annunciato che sta già lavorando per rendere la terraformazione di Marte una realtà:Per la prima volta, abbiamo gli strumenti tecnologici per trasformare non solo le zone ostili qui sulla Terra, ma anche per andare nello spazio, e non in visita, ma per restarci” ha dichiarato Alicia Jackson, vicedirettrice del nuovo Biological Technologies Office della DARPA, alla conferenza sulle biotecnologie tenuta dalla DARPA stessa. FONTE 

I progetti per abitare Marte hanno una lunga storia; dagli anni ’60 il Pianeta Rosso è stato visitato da decine di sonde. 

RETROFUTURO

La prima missione su Marte con un’astronave atomica fu proposta dalla General Electric fin dal 1963. Quattro soli uomini sarebbero sbarcati sul pianeta a bordo di una navetta alata, situata alla sommità, restandovi solo 5 giorni, mentre il grosso del veicolo sarebbe rimasto in orbita marziana. Il lancio avrebbe potuto essere effettuato nel 1971. Per alimentare il reattore nucleare, stimato di bassa potenza, l’astronave sarebbe stata sovraccarica di serbatoi d’idrogeno liquido. Gli occupanti avrebbero vissuto su due ponti e avrebbero avuto un rifugio dove ripararsi dalle radiazioni delle tempeste solari, enormemente più pericolose del reattore. La missione si sarebbe svolta a gravità zero. Oltre agli uomini, la navetta di sbarco avrebbe potuto trasportare 2500 kg di materiale. Tutto il superfluo sarebbe stato abbandonato sulla superficie di Marte.

MISSIONE SU MARTE DELLA GENERAL ELECTRIC, 1963

Nel 1969 von Braun propose una missione marziana che sarebbe partita il 12 novembre 1981, sarebbe arrivata a destinazione il 9 agosto 1982, e avrebbe fatto ritorno sulla Terra il 14 agosto 1983. “La spedizione interplanetaria consisterà di 12 uomini a bordo di due navi che voleranno in formazione. Le due navi saranno lanciate in orbita circumsolare da razzi nucleari. 280 giorni dopo entreranno in orbita marziana, e vi rimarranno per 80 giorni. Durante questo tempo compiranno escursioni sulla superficie. Per il ritorno sulla Terra, i motori nucleari verranno accesi una seconda volta. Le astronavi di ritorno passeranno abbastanza vicino al pianeta Venere per sfruttare il suo campo gravitazionale per frenare la velocità. Una volta tornate in orbita terrestre e rifornite, le astronavi saranno pronte per un altro viaggio su Marte”. Entrambe le astronavi sarebbero state lunghe 90 metri, di forma cilindrica e munite di gravità artificiale unendole con un cavo e facendole ruotare alle due estremità. I componenti per montarle sarebbero state lanciate in orbita terrestre da una serie di Saturn V. Sfortunatamente, ogni piano simile fu annullato dal presidente Richard Nixon….

I russi considerarono la possibilità di un viaggio su Marte fin dal 1956… con un immenso veicolo a propulsione convenzionale, l’MPK, dalla massa di 1600 tonnellate, che avrebbe richiesto circa 25 lanci dell’N-1 (l’equivalente del Saturn V) per essere assemblato in orbita terrestre. L’equipaggio sarebbe rimasto sul pianeta rosso un anno. Il progetto fu fortemente sostenuto da Korolev. Nel 1960, Korolev e altri proposero per la prima volta l’uso della propulsione atomica in un veicolo lungo ben 175 metri, il TMK-E, con cinque capsule di sbarco contenenti un vero e proprio “Treno marziano” anch’esso atomico, che avrebbe incessantemente percorso la superficie sempre per un anno intero. Particolare cura fu rivolta al comfort dei passeggeri, che dall’interno, in maniche di camicia, si sarebbero serviti di braccia meccaniche. Anche dopo la morte di Korolev, nel 1969, fu varato un progetto Aelita per far sbarcare su Marte almeno tre uomini per una settimana, con una nave massiccia e affusolata come una spada di 150 tonnellate. La nave sarebbe stata montata in orbita da due lanci dell’N-1 in versione potenziata. Ma nel 1972 una commissione decise che gli sforzi sarebbero stati troppo immani e cancellò ogni piano sovietico per Marte.

ASTRONAVI A PROPULSIONE MISTA NUCLEARE-ELETTRICA

E chi avrebbe guidato le astronavi atomiche? “Cyborg”, cioè piloti spaziali adattati biologicamente al nuovo ambiente cosmico. Questa parola, in seguito popolarizzata dalla science fiction, fu coniata nel 1960 da due medici di nome Manfred Clynes e Nathan Kline. Perfino i loro cuori avrebbero funzionato a energia atomica, come quello alimentato da 100 grammi di plutonio che Lowell T. Harmison, del National Heart and Lung Institute americano, trapiantò su un vitello nel 1972. Il divulgatore Albert Rosenfeld, nel libro del 1969 The Second Genesis, ne fornisce un’eccellente descrizione. “Un cyborg progettato per l’astronatica somiglierebbe ancora a un uomo, ma assai strano. Sarebbe racchiuso in una tuta aderentissima, senza bisogno di pressurizzazione perché i suoi polmoni sarebbero parzialmente collassati e il sangue al loro interno refrigerato, mentre la respirazione… e la maggioranza delle altre funzioni corporee… verrebbero svolte per lui da minuscoli organi e sensori, alcuni dei quali attaccati all’esterno del corpo, altri impiantati chirurgicamente. Anche la bocca e il naso sarebbero sigillati nella tuta, dato che non ne avrebbe bisogno per respirare. I cyborg comunicherebbero tra l’uno e l’altro trasmettendo via radio gli impulsi elettrici delle loro corde vocali. Un sistema computerizzato in miniatura, che riceverebbe ed emetterebbe informazioni per regolare il corpo al mutamento d’ambiente… manterrebbe stabile il metabolismo del cyborg nonostante le radicali fluttuazioni nella temperatura e nella pressione. Il cyborg viaggerebbe nel vuoto dello spazio in una cabina non pressurizzata, passeggerebbe sulla Luna o su Marte protetto da caldo, freddo e radiazioni da una vasta gamma di sostanze chimiche pompate direttamente nello stomaco o nel flusso sanguigno. I rifiuti sarebbero trattati chimicamente per trarne altro cibo. I frammenti di materia di scarto totalmente inutile verrebbero depositati automaticamente in un piccolo contenitore posto sulla schiena”…

I cyborg non sarebbero stati soli. Li avrebbero accompagnati astronauti messi in letargo. In America 2000 il dr. Albert Salomon, autorità in fatto di anestesia, disse: “Lavoriamo molto in questo senso e con l’aiuto di un farmaco ancora allo studio, sono certo che a breve scadenza arriveremo al successo. Troveremo il sistema di provocare la morte apparente e di prolungarla a tempo indeterminato: gli scienziati spaziali ci fanno fretta perché hanno bisogno di uomini ‘imbalsamati’ da spedire sugli altri pianeti con viaggi che potranno durare anche un decennio”. Il biologo J. B. S. Haldane propose di modificare i futuri esploratori del cosmo in modi bizzarri: “Una scimmia dotata di una coda prensile si adatterebbe meglio a un basso campo gravitazionale. Forse un giorno sarà necessario trapiantare code al genere umano”. Haldane suggerì anche di amputare gli astronauti delle gambe, sempre per economizzare spazio e risorse e perché a gravità zero le gambe si sono dimostrate inutili e ingombranti. Charles Townes, premio Nobel per l’invenzione del laser, affermò infine che “l’uomo dovrebbe avere una taglia più piccola. Uomini più piccoli consumerebbero meno risorse e sarebbero più adatti ai lunghi viaggi spaziali”. Il culmine fu raggiunto dal biologo E. S. Hafez, che suggerì di mandare nel cosmo embrioni umani da far crescere meccanicamente all’arrivo. “Se si considera quanto costa in carburante un lancio spaziale, perché inviare uomini e donne già cresciuti? Dopotutto, stiamo lavorando duramente per miniaturizzare i componenti delle astronavi. Perché non i passeggeri?” Ma forse nulla di tutto ciò sarebbe stato necessario, perché G. Harry Stine calcolò nel 1961 che, estrapolando la storia dei record di velocità dei veicoli, risultava che nel 1982 questa sarebbe divenuta infinita, permettendo, fra l’altro, i viaggi interstellari...

“In effetti” disse Arthur C. Clarke in Profiles of the Future “è stato seriamente suggerito di allevare persone più piccole per risparmiare sul cibo e le materie prime. Anche una riduzione del 10% dell’altezza media della razza umana avrebbe un effetto considerevole, perché gente più piccola avrebbe bisogno di case, auto, vestiti più ristretti. Non ci sarebbero più nani, ovviamente, se tutti fossero alti un metro, e allora il mondo potrebbe sostenere confortevolmente il doppio della sua popolazione attuale”. Non solo questo: al principio dell’era dei computer, quando costavano milioni di dollari, il fisico Curtiss R. Schafer asserì che sarebbe stato più economico munire di elettrodi il cervello di un neonato e trasformarlo in computer umano per il resto della vita. Nello stesso periodo, nel 1962, il professor Roger A. MacGowan parlò delle rosee prospettive del progetto SETI: “I tentativi miranti a intercettare notizie trasmesse da intelligenze extraterrestri sono assolutamente legittimi. Quando saranno in funzione i grandi radiotelescopi, questi sforzi verranno coronati da successo. Ciò avverrà tra 10 o al massimo 20 anni”. Non solo, ma anche gli alieni sarebbero stati cyborg: “Appena dotata di intelligenza, la vita inizia a sostituire le proprie componenti biologiche con componenti meccaniche”.

VEDUTE DEL PIANETA VENERE TERRAFORMATO © Lars Norlin

C’era la possibilità opposta: invece di modificare gli uomini, rendere abitabili i pianeti, o “terraformarli”, per usare il termine esatto. Nel 1961 Carl Sagan ebbe il primo spiraglio di notorietà proponendo di terraformare Venere in soli pochi anni di tempo, sganciando nella sua atmosfera dei carichi di alghe cyanophyta. L’atmosfera di Venere è composta di anidride carbonica: le alghe l’avrebbero trasformata in ossigeno respirabile. Poi avrebbe iniziato a piovere, abbastanza da ricoprire il pianeta di due metri e mezzo d’acqua. Sfortunatamente, le successive scoperte su Venere mostrarono che le alghe non sarebbero sopravvissute. Nel 1962 i russi svelarono un piano per terraformare la Luna, estraendo ossigeno dalle sue rocce, e anche accelerando la sua rotazione con un bombardamento di asteroidi. Il problema era che la debole gravità lunare avrebbe trattenuto l’atmosfera solo per pochi secoli. Nel 1969 il fisico americano Fred S. Singer propose di rimediare all’inconveniente… facendo esplodere al centro della Luna una superbomba atomica. La bomba avrebbe fatto implodere il satellite, che, diventando più piccolo, avrebbe acquisito sulla sua nuova superficie una gravità sufficiente a trattenere un’atmosfera per sempre. FONTE

Il PROCESSO DI “TERRAFORMING” SU MARTE

La terraformazione di Marte è un processo in cui l’atmosfera e l’ambiente verrebbero modificati per rendere il pianeta abitabile da esseri umani e altre forme di vita terrestri, fornendo in tal modo la possibilità di una sicura e sostenibile colonizzazione di vaste aree del pianeta.

Un esempio di progetto per la terraformazione di Marte prevede di liberare grandi quantità di gas serra nell’atmosfera del pianeta, innalzandone la temperatura. Questo causerebbe l’evaporazione di anidride carbonica dalle calotte polari, aumentando ancora l’effetto serra e facendo sciogliere eventuale ghiaccio presente nel sottosuolo marziano. Ciò porterebbe Marte ad avere acqua liquida, un clima più simile a quello terrestre e un’atmosfera più densa, a base di anidride carbonica. Infine si importerebbero sul pianeta delle piante che arricchiscano di ossigeno l’atmosfera tramite la fotosintesi. È stato calcolato che l’intero processo durerebbe più di centomila anni. Sono stati ideati processi più rapidi, ma dalla durata sempre misurabile in secoli.

Per riscaldare le calotte polari di Marte liberando anidride carbonica sono stati proposti anche altri metodi, come coprirle con sostanze scure (come polvere di carbone) che assorbano meglio la luce solare, o riflettere il Sole sui ghiacciai marziani da giganteschi specchi in orbita attorno al pianeta.

La maggior parte del suolo marziano è costituito da minerali richiesti per il processo di terraformazione. Recenti ricerche scientifiche hanno rivelato che ci sono grandi quantità di acqua sotto forma di ghiaccio al di sotto della superficie del pianeta fino alla latitudine 60, proprio come nei due poli dove l’acqua è miscelata con ghiaccio secco (CO2 solido). È persino possibile che vi siano enormi quantità di ghiaccio nella crosta marziana più profonda.

Una volta che l’anidride carbonica sublima nell’atmosfera durante le estati marziane, essa lascia una piccola quantità di acqua residua che si sposta rapidamente dai poli con una velocità di circa 400 km/h. Questi eventi stagionali fanno sì che vengano trasportate grandi quantità di polvere e vapore acqueo come quelle che hanno permesso la formazione sulla Terra di cirri (delle nuvole). FONTE

VEDI ANCHE

MARTE SARÀ A MISURA D’UOMO – LA TERRA SARÀ…

TERRA 2.0 – TERRAFORMAZIONE DI ALTRI PIANETI, LA PROSSIMA FRONTIERA

 

PLANETARY ENGINEERING BIBLIOGRAPHY (Revised January 2011).

Martyn J. Fogg (Probability Research Group, London, UK).

With previous assistance from: Tom Meyer (University of Colorado), Stephen Gillett (University of Reno, Nevada), Robert Haynes (York University, Ontario) and Richard Cathcart.

INTRODUCTION.

A listing of literature related to planetary engineering follows below. The entries are placed into one of three categories:

1. GEOENGINEERING.

2. TERRAFORMING.

3. ASTROPHYSICAL ENGINEERING/OTHER.

Definitions of planetary engineering, geoengineering and terraforming are taken from Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments (Fogg, 1995).

  • Planetary Engineering is the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet.
  • Geoengineering is planetary engineering applied specifically to the Earth. It includes only those macroengineering concepts that deal with the alteration of some global parameter, such as the greenhouse effect, atmospheric composition, insolation or impact flux.
  • Terraforming is a process of planetary engineering, specifically directed at enhancing the capacity of an extra-terrestrial planetary environment to support life. The ultimate in terraforming would be to create an uncontained planetary biosphere emulating all the functions of the biosphere of the Earth, one that would be fully habitable for human beings.
Astrophysical Engineering is taken to represent proposed activities, relating to future habitation, that are envisaged to occur on a scale greater than that of “conventional” planetary engineering.

It is thought that the entries related to terraforming are near-comprehensive and include almost everything substantive written on the subject. However, this does not mean that all entries are essential to a programme of study. Researchers specifically interested in the terraforming of Mars will find a personal recommendation of the most essential literature in Section 2 indicated so ª.

CONTENTS.

1. GEOENGINEERING.

1.1 NON-FICTION BOOKS.

  • Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, National Academy Press, (1991).
  • F.P. Davidson and C.L. Meador (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: Global Infrastructure Solutions, Ellis Horwood, London (1992).
  • T. Gehrels (Ed.), Hazards due to Comets and Asteroids, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, (1994).
  • Kitzinger, U. and Frankel, E.G (Eds.)., Macro-Engineering and the Earth: World Projects for the Year 2000 and Beyond, Horwood Publishing Ltd., Chichester (1998).
  • J.S. Lewis, Comet and Asteroid Impact Hazards on a Populated Earth: Computer Modeling, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (2000).
  • R.G. Watts (Ed.), Engineering Response to Global Climate Change, Lewis, Boca Raton, FL (1997).
  • R.G. Watts (Ed.), Innovative Energy Strategies for CO2 Stabilization, Cambridge University Press (2002).
  • V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, Springer (2006).

1.2 TECHNICAL PAPERS.

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  • T.J. Ahrens and A.W. Harris, “Deflection and Fragmentation of Near-Earth Asteroids,” Nature, 360, 429-433 (1992).
  • B. Allenby, “Earth Systems Engineering and Management,” IEE Technology and Society Magazine, Winter Issue, 10-24 (2000-2001).
  • S.B. Alpert, D.F. Spencer and G. Hidy, “Biospheric Options for Mitigating Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels,” Energy Conversion and Management, 33(5-8), 729-736 (1992).
  • V. Badescu and R.B. Cathcart, “Environmental Thermodynamic Limitations on Global Human Population,” Int. J. Global Energy Issues, 25, 129-140 (2006).
  • G. Bala, “Problems with Geoengineering Schemes to Combat Climate Change,” Current Science, 96, 41-48 (2009).
  • G. Bala and K. Caldeira, “Mitigation of Anthropogenic Climate Change via a Macro-Engineering Scheme: Climate Modeling Results,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 65-86 Springer (2006).
  • L. Bengtsson, “Geoengineering to Confine Climate Change: Is it at all Feasible?” Climatic Change, 77, 229-234 (2006).
  • D. Bodansky, “May We Engineer the Climate?” Climatic Change, 33(3), 309-321 (1996).
  • P.W. Boyd et al., “A Mesoscale Phytoplankton Bloom in the Polar Southern Ocean Stimulated by Iron Fertilization,” Nature, 407, 695-702 (2000).
  • V. Brovkin, V. Petoukhov, M. Claussen, E. Bauer, D. Archer and C. Jaeger, “Geoengineering Climate by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: Earth System Vulnerability to Technological Failure,” Climatic Change, 92, 243-259 (2009).
  • R.B. Cathcart, “Macroengineering and Terraforming: Building Modernised and Additional Functional Regions,” Specul. Sci. Technol., 14, 34-40 (1991).
  • R.B. Cathcart, “Land Art as Global Warming or Cooling Antidote,” Specul. Sci. Technol., 21, 65-72 (1998).
  • R.B. Cathcart and M.M. Cirkovic, “Extreme Climate Control Membrane Structures,” V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 151-174,  Springer (2006).
  • R.J. Charlson, S.E. Schwartz, J.M. Hales, R.D. Cess, J.A. Coakley, J.E. Hansen, and D.J. Hofmann, “Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols,” Science, 255, 423-430 (1992).
  • R.J. Cicerone, S. Elliott and R.P. Turco, “Reduced Antarctic Ozone Depletions in a Model with Hydrocarbon Injections,” Science, 254, 1191-1194 (1991).
  • R.J. Cicerone, S. Elliott and R.P. Turco, “Global Environmental Engineering,” Nature, 356, 9 (1992).
  • R.J. Cicerone, “Geoengineering: Encouraging Research and Overseeing Implementation,” Climatic Change, 77, 221-226 (2006).
  • D.J. Cooper, A.J. Watson and P.D. Nightingale, “Large Decrease in Ocean Surface CO2 Fugacity in Response to In-Situ Iron Fertilisation,” Nature, 383, 511-513 (1996).
  • P.J. Crutzen, “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?” Climatic Change, 77, 211-219 (2006).
  • H.J.W. DeBaar, “Options for Enhancing the Storage of Carbon Dioxide in the Oceans -A Review,” Energy Conversion and Management, 33(5-8), 635-642 (1992).
  • R.E. Dickinson, “Climate Engineering: A Review of Aerosol Approaches to Changing the Global Energy Balance,” Climatic Change, 33(3), 279-290 (1996).
  • G.R. DiTullio et al., “Rapid and Early Export of Phaeocystis antarctica blooms in the Ross Sea, Antarctica,” Nature, 404, 595-598 (2000).
  • F.J. Dyson, “Can We Control the Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere?” Energy, 2, 287-291 (1977).
  • J.T. Early, “Space-based Solar Shield to Offset Greenhouse Effect,” JBIS, 42, 567-569 (1989).
  • K.A. Ehricke, “Space Light: Space Industrial Enhancement of the Solar Option,” Acta Astronautica, 6, 1515-1633 (1979).
  • K.A. Ehricke, “Contributions of Space Reflector Technology to Food Production, Local Weather Manipulation and Energy Supply, 1985-2020,” JBIS, 34, 511-518 (1981).
  • P.G. Falkowski, “The Ocean’s Invisible Forest,” Sci. Am., 287(2), 38-45 (2002).
  • B. Govindasamy and K. Caldeira, “Geoengineering Earth’s Radiation Balance to Mitigate CO2-induced Climate Change,” Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2141-2144 (2000). 1.04 mb pdf download
  • W.J. Harrison, R.F. Wendlandt and E.D. Sloan,  “Geochemical Interactions Resulting from Carbon Dioxide Disposal on the Sea Floor,” Applied Geochemistry, 10(4), 461-475 (1995).
  • L.D.D. Harvey, “Mitigating the Atmospheric CO2 Increase and Ocean Acidification by Adding Limestone Powder to Upwelling Regions,” J. Geophys. Res., C04028, doi:10.1029/2007JC004373, (2008).
  • H.A. Haugen and L.I. Eide, “CO2 Capture and Disposal – the Realism of Large Scale Scenarios,” Energy Conversion and Management, 37(6-8), 1061-1066 (1996).
  • R.N. Hoffman, “Controlling the Global Weather,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 83(2), 241-248 (2002).
  • M.I. Hoffert, K. Caldeira, G. Benford, et al., “Advanced Technology Paths to Global Climate Stability: Energy for a Greenhouse Planet,” Science, 298, 981-987 (2002).
  • K.A. Holsapple, “On Nuking Menacing Asteroids,” Lunar and Planetary Science, XXXIV, 1999H (2003).
  • T. Honjou, and O.H. San, “Huge CO2 Storage in Antarctic Ice Sheet,” Energy Conversion and Management, 36(6-9), 501-504 (1995).
  • P.M. Huagan and H. Drange, “Sequestration of CO2 in the Deep Ocean by Shallow Injection,” Nature, 357, 318-320 (1992).
  • H.S. Hudson, “A Space Parasol as a Countermeasure Against the Greenhouse Effect,” JBIS, 44, 139-141 (1991).
  • P.G. Jarvis, “Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Forests,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B., 324, 369-392 (1989).
  • F. Joos, J.L. Sarmiento and U. Siegenthaler, “Estimates of the Effect of Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization on Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations,” Nature, 349, 772-775 (1991).
  • D..Jamieson, “Ethics and Intentional Climate Change,” Climatic Change, 33(3), 323-326 (1996).
  • D.W. Keith, “Geoengineering the Climate: History and Prospect,” Ann. Rev. Energy and Environment, 25, 245-284 (2000).
  • D.W. Keith and H. Dowlatabadi, “A Serious Look at Geoengineering,” EOS, 73, 289, 292-293 (1992).
  • W.W. Kellogg and S.H. Schneider, “Climate Stabilization: For Better or for Worse?” Science, 186, 1163-1172 (1974).
  • H.S. Kheshgi, “The Effectiveness of Marine Carbon Dioxide Disposal”, Energy, 19(9), 967-974 (1994).
  • H.S. Kheshgi, “Sequestering Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide by Increasing Ocean Alkalinity,” Energy, 20(9), 915-922 (1994).
  • J.T. Kiehl, “Geoengineering Climate Change: Treating the Symptom Over the Cause?”, Climatic Change, 77, 227-228.
  • Z.S. Kolber, et al., “Iron Limitation of Phytoplankton Photosynthesis in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature, 371, 145-149 (1994).
  • K.S. Lackner, et al.., “Carbon Dioxide Disposal in Carbonate Minerals,” Energy, 20, 1153-1170 (1995).
  • M.G. Lawrence, “The Geoengineering Dilemma: To Speak or Not to Speak?” Climatic Change, 77, 245-248 (2006).
  • J. Lovelock, “A Geophysiologist’s Thoughts on Geoengineering,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0135 (2008).
  • D. Lunt, A. Ridgwell, P.J. Valdes,  and A. Seale, “Sunshade World: A Fully Coupled GCM Evaluation of the  Climatic Impacts of Geoengineering,” Geophys Res. Lett, 35, L12710, doi:10.1029/2008GL033674, (2008).
  • M.C. MacCracken, “Geoengineering: Worthy of Cautious Evaluation?” Climatic Change, 77, 235-243 (2006).
  • C. Marchetti, “On Geoengineering and the CO2 Problem,” Climatic Change, 1, 59-68 (1977).
  • G. Marland (Ed.), “Special Section on Geoengineering,” Climatic Change, 33(3), 275-336 (1996).
  • G. Marland, “Could We/Should We Engineer the Earth’s Climate?” Climatic Change, 33(3), 275-278 (1996).
  • G. Marland and S. Marland, “Should we Store Carbon in Trees?” Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 64 (1-2), 181-196 (1992).
  • R.H. Marrs, “The Control and Correction of Human Induced Changes in the Earth’s Biospheric Environment – Restoration Ecology,” JBIS, 54, 225-228 (2001).
  • J.H. Martin, S.E. Fitzwater, and R.M. Gordon, “Iron Deficiency Limits Phytoplankton Growth in Antarctic Waters,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 4, 5-12 (1990).
  • J.H. Martin, R.M. Gordon, and S.E. Fitzwater, “Iron in Antartic Waters,” Nature, 345, 156-158 (1990).
  • J.H. Martin, et al., “Testing the Iron Hypothesis in Ecosystems of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature, 371, 123-129 (1994).
  • K. Matsumoto and B.K. Mignone, “Model Simulations of Carbon Sequestration in the North-west Pacific by Direct Injection,” J. Oceanography, 61, 747-760 (2005).
  • E. Matuo, et al., “CO2 Fixation by Promoting Large-Scale Marine Food Production,” Energy Conversion and Management, 36(6-9), 907-910 (1995).
  • M. Mautner, and K. Parks, “Space-based Control of the Climate,” in Engineering, Construction and Operations in Space II: Volume 2, Proceedings of Space ’90, American Society of Civil Engineers (1990).
  • M. Mautner, “A Space-based Solar Screen Against Climatic Warming,” JBIS, 44, 135-138 (1991).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Minimum Mass Solar Shield for Terrestrial Climate Control,” JBIS, 55, 307-311 (2002).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Deflection of Near-Earth Asteroids by Kinetic Energy Impacts from Retrograde Orbits,” Planet. Space Sci., 52, 587-590 (2004).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Planetary Macro-Engineering Using Orbiting Solar Reflectors,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 215-250 Springer (2006).
  • H.J. Melosh and I.V. Nemchinov, “Solar Asteroid Diversion,” Nature, 366, 21-22 (1993).
  • R.A. Metzger and G. Benford, “Sequestering of Atmospheric Carbon through Permanent Disposal of Crop Residue,” Climatic Change, 49, 11-19 (2001).
  • F.M.M. Morel, J.R. Reinfelder, S.B. Roberts, C.B. Chamberlain, J.G. Lee, and D. Yee, “Zinc and Carbon Co-limitation of Marine Phytoplankton,” Nature, 369, 740-742 (1994).
  • C.N. Murray, L. Visintini and B. Henry, “Permanent Storage of Carbon-Dioxide in the Marine Environment – the Solid CO2 Penetrator”, Energy Conversion and Management, 37( 6-8), 1067-1072 (1996).
  • J.C. Orr and J.L.Sarmiento, “Potential of Marine Macroalgae as a Sink for CO2: Constraints from a 3-D General Circulation Model of the Global Ocean”, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 64, 405-421 (1992).
  • H. Ozawa et al., “Research of Arid Land Afforestation Technologies for Carbon Dioxide Fixation,” Energy Conversion and Management, 36( 6-9), 911-914 (1995).
  • J.M. Pearce et al., “Natural Occurences as Analogues for the Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide,” Energy Conversion and Management, 37( 6-8), 1123-1128 (1996).
  • J. Pearson, J. Oldson and E. Levin, “Earth Rings for Planetary Environment Control,” Acta Astronautica, 58, 44-57 (2006) .
  • T-H. Peng, and W.S. Broecker, “Dynamical Limitations on the Antarctic Iron Fertilization Strategy,” Nature, 349, 227-229 (1991).
  • S.S. Penner, A.M. Schneider, and E.M. Kennedy, “Active Measures for Reducing the Global Climatic Impacts of Escalating CO2 Concentrations,” Acta Astronautica, 11, 345-348 (1984).
  • R.L. Ritschard, “Marine Algae as a CO2 Sink,” Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 64, 289-303 (1992).
  • K.I. Roy, “Solar Sails: An Answer to Global Warming,” CP552, Space Technology and Applications International Forum, American Institute of Physics, New York (2001).
  • C. Sagan and S.J. Ostro, “Dangers of Asteroid Deflection,” Nature, 368, 501 (1994).
  • B.D. Santer et al., “A Search for Human Influences on the Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere,” Nature, 382, 39-46 (1996). 
  • J.L. Sarmiento, “Slowing the Buildup of CO2 in the Atmosphere by Iron Fertilization: A Comment,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 5, 1-2 (1991).
  • T.C. Schelling, “The Economic Diplomacy of Geoengineering,” Climatic Change, 33(3), 303-307 (1996).
  • R.D. Schuiling, “Mineral Sequestration of CO2 and Recovery of the Heat of Reaction,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54,  21-29, Springer (2006).
  • S.H..Schneider, “Geoengineering, Could – or Should – We Do It?” Climatic Change, 33(3), 291-302 (1996).
  • R. Schweickart, E.T. Lu, P. Hut, and C. Chapman, “The Asteroid Tugboat,” Sci. Am., Nov. 2003, 54-61.
  • R. Schweickart, C. Chapman, D. Durda, B. Bottke, D. Nesvorny, and P. Hut, “Threat Characterization: Trajectory Dynamics,” Submitted to NASA Workshop on Near-Earth Objects, Vail, Colorado, June 2006. http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0608155 
  • R. Schweickart, C. Chapman, D. Durda, and P. Hut, “Threat Mitigation: The Asteroid Tugboat,” Submitted to NASA Workshop on Near-Earth Objects, Vail, Colorado, June 2006. http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0608156 
  • R. Schweickart, C. Chapman, D. Durda, and P. Hut, “Threat Mitigation: The Gravity Tractor,” Submitted to NASA Workshop on Near-Earth Objects, Vail, Colorado, June 2006. http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0608157 
  • W. Seifritz, “Mirrors to Halt Global Warming?” Nature, 340, 603 (1989).
  • W. Seifritz, “The Terrestrial Storage of CO2 Dry Ice,” Energy Conversion and Management, 34, 1121-1141 (1993).
  • J.C. Solem, “Interception of Comets and Asteroids on Collision Course with Earth,” J. Spacecraft and Rockets, 30, 222-229 (1993).
  • G. Stegen and K. Cole, “Biogeochemical Impacts of CO2 Storage in the Ocean,” Energy Conversion and Management, 36(6-9), 497-500 (1995).
  • T.H. Stix, “Removal of Chlorofluorocarbons from the Earth’s Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Phys., 66, 5622-5626 (1989).
  • C. Struck, “The Feasibility of Shading the Greenhouse with Dust Clouds at the Stable Lunar Lagrange Points,” JBIS, 60, 82-89 (2007).
  • H. Takano and T. Matsunaga, “CO2 Fixation by Artificial Weathering of Waste Concrete and Coccolithophorid Algal Cultures,” Energy Conversion and Management, 36(6-9), 697-700 (1995).
  • R. Walker, D. Izzo, C. de Negueruela, L. Summerer, M. Ayre and M. Vasile, “Concepts for Near-Earth Asteroid Deflection Using Spacecraft with Advanced Nuclear and Solar Electric Propulsion Systems,” JBIS, 58, 268-278 (2005).
  • A.J. Watson, et al., “Minimal Effect of Iron Fertilization on Sea-Surface Carbon Dioxide Concentations,” Nature, 371, 143-145 (1994).
  • A.J. Watson et al., “Effect of Iron Supply on Southern Ocean CO2 Uptake and Implications for Glacial Atmospheric CO2,” Nature, 407, 730-733 (2000).
  • T.M.L. Wigley, R. Richels and J.A. Edmonds, “Economic and Environmental Choices in the Stabilization of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations,” Nature, 379, 240-243 (1996).
  • A.Y. Wong, D.K. Sensharma, A.W. Tang, R.G. Suchannek, and D. Ho, “Observation of Charge-Induced Recovery of Ozone Concentration After Catalytic Destruction by Chlorofluorocarbons,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 3124-3127 (1994).
  • S. Zhou and P.C. Flynn, “Geoengineering Downwelling Ocean Currents: A Cost Assessement,”Climatic Change, 71, 203-220 (2005). 

1.3 ARTICLES.

  • R. Hamil, “Terraforming the Earth,” Analog, pp. 47-65 July (1978).

 

2. TERRAFORMING.

2.1 NON-FICTION BOOKS.

  • M.M. Averner and R.D. MacElroy, On the Habitability of Mars: An Approach to Planetary Ecosynthesis, NASA SP-414 (1976). ª
  • M. Beech, Terraforming: The Creating of Habitable Worlds, Springer (2009). ª
  • A.C. Clarke, The Snows of Olympus: A Garden on Mars, Victor Gollancz, London (1995).
  • M.J. Fogg, Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments, SAE International, Warrendale, PA (1995). ª
  • E.C. Hargrove (Ed.), Beyond Spaceship Earth: Environmental Ethics and the Solar System, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, CA (1986).
  • M.Pauls and D. Facaros, The Travellers Guide to Mars, Cadogan Books PLC, London (1997).
  • J.E. Oberg, New Earths, Stackpole, Harrisburg, PA (1981). ª
  • The Terraforming of Planets, Man-made Biospheres and The Future Civilization, Yazawa Science Office, Tokyo (1992). (In Japanese with sections by Fogg, McKay and Smith).
  • R. Zubrin, From Imagination to Reality: Part II: Base Building, Colonization and Terraformation, AAS Science and Technology Series, Vol. 92, Univelt, San Diego (1997).
  • R. Zubrin with R. Wagner, The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must, The Free Press, New York (1996). ª

2.2 TECHNICAL PAPERS.

  • S.J. Adelman “Can Venus Be Transformed into an Earth-Like Planet?” JBIS, 35, 3-8 (1982).
  • B. Adelman and S.J. Adelman, “Some Research Requirments of Planetary Engineering,” JBIS, 42, 555-557 (1989).
  • V. Badescu, “Regional and Seasonal Limitations for Mars Intrinsic Ecopoiesis,” Acta Astronautica, 56(7), 670-680 (2005).
  • D. Balasubramanian, “Should Mars be Made Habitable?” Current Science, 61(11), 712-714 (1991).
  • M. Beech, “Terraformed Exoplanets and SETI,” JBIS, 61, 43-46 (2008).
  • H. Benaroya, “An Engineering Perspective on Terraforming,” JBIS, 50, 105-108 (1997).
  • P. Birch, “Terraforming Venus Quickly,” JBIS, 44, 157-167 (1991).
  • P. Birch, “Terraforming Mars Quickly,” JBIS, 45, 331-340 (1992). ª
  • P. Birch, “How to Spin a Planet,” JBIS, 46, 311-313 (1993).
  • “Bringing Worlds to Life: Terraforming, the New Science of Planetary Environmental Engineering”, Abstracts of London University Conference, JBIS, 46, 327-328 (1993).
  • J. Burns, and M. Harwit, “Towards a More Habitable Mars -or- the Coming Martian Spring,” Icarus, 19, 126-130 (1973).
  • R.B. Cathcart, “Taming Mars With a Tent and a Tunnel: Creation of a Biosphere City,” Specul. Sci. Technol., 21, 117-131 (1998).
  • C.S. Cockell et al., “The Ultraviolet Environment of Mars: Biological Implications Past, Present and Future,” Icarus, 146, 343-359 (2000). ª
  • C.S. Cockell , “Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms,” JBIS, 58, 367-373 (2005).
  • F.J. Dyson, “Terraforming Venus,” correspondence in JBIS, 42, 593 (1989).
  • M.J. Fogg, “The Terraforming of Venus,” JBIS, 40, 551-564 (1987).
  • M.J. Fogg, “The Creation of an Artificial, Dense Martian Atmosphere: A Major Obstacle to the Terraforming of Mars,” JBIS, 42, 577-582 (1989). ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “Terraforming, as Part of a Strategy for Interstellar Colonisation,” JBIS, 44, 183-192 (1991).
  • M.J. Fogg, “Terraforming and the Future Offspring of Gaia,” Gaian Science, 2(3), 8-9 (1991).
  • M.J. Fogg, “A Synergic Approach to Terraforming Mars,” JBIS, 45, 315-329 (1992). ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “Terraforming: A Review for Environmentalists,” The Environmentalist, 13, 7-17 (1993). ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “Dynamics of a Terraformed Martian Biosphere,” JBIS, 46, 293-304 (1993). ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “Exploration of the Future Habitability of Mars,” JBIS, 48, 301-310 (1995).
  • M.J. Fogg, “Terraforming Mars: Conceptual Solutions to the Problem of Plant Growth in Low Concentrations of Oxygen,” JBIS, 48, 427-434 (1995). ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “Terraforming Mars: A Review of Current Research,” Adv. Space Res., 22(3), 415-420 (1998). Scanned paper ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “Artesian Basins on Mars: Implications for Life-Search, Settlement and Terraforming,” in J.A. Hiscox (Ed.), The Search for Life on Mars, pp. 66-72, British Interplanetary Society, London (1999); also in R.M. Zubrin and M. Zubrin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society, Part II, pp. 623-636, Univelt, San Diego (1999). ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “The Long-Term Habitation of Mars,” in P.J. Boston (Ed.), The Case for Mars V, pp. 333-366, Univelt, San Diego (2000). 
  • M.J. Fogg, “The Ethical Dimensions of Space Settlement,” Space Policy, 16, 205-211 (2000). Preprint ª
  • M.J. Fogg, “On the Possibility of Terraforming Mars,” Architectural Design, 70(2), 66-71, (2000).
  • M.J. Fogg and C.P. McKay, “A Mathematical Model of Terraforming Mars,” in preparation (2001).
  • R.A. Freitas, Jr., “Terraforming Mars and Venus Using Machine Self-Replicating Systems,” JBIS, 36, 139-142 (1983).
  • E.I. Friedmann, “Extreme Environments and Exobiology,” Giornale Botanico Italiano, 127(3), 369-376 (1993).
  • E.I. Friedmann, M. Hua, and R. Ocampo-Friedmann, “Terraforming Mars: Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks by Cyanobacteria,” JBIS, 46, 291-292 (1993). ª
  • E.I. Friedmann, and R. Ocampo-Friedmann, “A Primitive Cyanobacterium as Pioneer Microorganism for Terraforming Mars,” Adv. Space Res., 15(3), 243-246 (1995). ª
  • M.F. Gerstell et al., “Keeping Mars Warm With New Super Greenhouse Gases,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98(5), 2154-2157 (2001). http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.051511598 ª
  • S.L. Gillett, “Establishment and Stabilization of Earthlike Conditions on Venus,” JBIS, 44, 151-156 (1991).
  • S.L. Gillett, “‘Carba’ and Molecular Nanotechnology: Potential Synergy Between Venus Resources and Terraforming,” JBIS, 56, 146-151 (2003).
  • J.A. Graham and L. Graham, “Physiological Ecology of Terrestrial Microbes on a Terraformed Mars,” in R.M. Zubrin and M. Zubrin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society, Part III, pp. 895-899, Univelt, San Diego (1999).
  • J.A. Graham and L. Graham, “Successional Stages in Terraforming Mars,” in R.M. Zubrin and M. Zubrin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society, Part III, pp. 901-904, Univelt, San Diego (1999).
  • C.R. Hancox, “Terraformation of Mars,” in R.M. Zubrin and M. Zubrin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society, Part III, pp. 905-935, Univelt, San Diego (1999).
  • A. Hansson, “A Fresh Start on Mars,” Chapter 10 in Mars and the Development of Life, Ellis Horwood, Chichester (1991).
  • S.D. Hart, P.A. Currier and D.J. Thomas, “Denitrification by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Under  Simulated Engineered Martian Conditions,” JBIS, 53, 357-359 (2000).
  • R.H. Haynes, “Prospects for Establishing a Microbial Ecosystem on Mars,” in Biotechnology on the Threshold of the XXI Century, Conference Proceedings, pp. 85-88, Moscow (1989).
  • R.H. Haynes, “Ecce Ecopoiesis: Playing God on Mars,” in D. MacNiven (Ed.), Moral Expertise, pp. 161-183, Routledge, New York (1990). ª
  • R.H. Haynes, , “Etablierung von Lieben auf dem Mars durch gerichtete Panspermie: Technische und ethische Probleme der Okopoese,” Biol. Zent. bl, 109, 193-205 (1990). (In German.)
  • R.H. Haynes, “Una Nova Ecopoesi: Possibilitats de Transmetre Vida a Mart,” Treballs de la SCB., 43, 11-23 (1992). (In Catalan.)
  • R.H. Haynes and C.P. McKay, “The Implantation of Life on Mars: Feasibility and Motivation,” Adv. Space Res., 12, (4)133-(4)140 (1992). ª
  • M. Heath, “Terraforming: Plate Tectonics and Long-Term Habitability,” JBIS, 44, 147-150 (1991).
  • M. Hempsell, “Terraforming in Context of the Evolving Space Infrastructure,” JBIS, 58, 385-391 (2005).
  • J.A. Hiscox, “Biology and the Planetary Engineering of Mars,” http://spot.colorado.edu/~marscase/cfm/articles/biorev3.html ª
  • J.A. Hiscox, “Ozone and planetary Habitability,” JBIS, 50, 109-114 (1997).
  • J.A. Hiscox, “Biology and the Planetary Engineering of Mars,” in K.R. McMillen (Ed.), The Case for Mars VI, pp. 453-481, Univelt, San Diego (2000).
  • J.A. Hiscox, “Selecting Pioneer Microorganisms for Mars,” in K.R. McMillen (Ed.), The Case for Mars VI, pp. 491-503, Univelt, San Diego (2000). ª
  • J.A. Hiscox and D.J. Thomas, “Genetic Modification and Selection of Microorganisms for Growth on Mars,” JBIS, 48, 419-426 (1995). ª
  • E.F. Hope-Jones, “Planetary Engineering,” JBIS, 12, 155-159 (1953).
  • T.H. Jukes, “Mars as a New Abode for Microbial Life,” J. Molec. Evol., 32, 355-357 (1991).
  • W.R. Kuhn, S.R. Rogers and R.D. MacElroy, “The Response of Selected Terrestrial Organisms to the Martian Environment: A Modeling Study,” Icarus, 37, 336-346 (1979). ª
  • J.S. Levine, “The Making of the Atmosphere,” in Advances in Engineering Science, Vol 3, NASA CP-2001, 1191-1202 (1976).
  • J.S. Levine, “Terraforming Earth and Mars,” in E.B. Pritchard (Ed.), Mars: Past, Present and Future, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 145, 17-26 (1993).
  • B.L. Lindner, “Atmospheric Change and Life on Mars,” in J.A. Hiscox (Ed.), The Search for Life on Mars, pp. 73-77, British Interplanetary Society, London (1999).
  • J.E. Lovelock, “The Ecopoiesis of Daisy World,” JBIS, 42, 583-586 (1989).
  • R.D. MacElroy and M.M. Averner, “Atmospheric Engineering of Mars,” in Advances in Engineering Science, Vol 3, NASA CP-2001, 1203-1214 (1976).
  • D. MacNiven, “Environmental Ethics and Planetary Engineering,” JBIS, 48, 441-443 (1995). ª
  • C. Marchal, “The Venus-New-World Project,” Acta Astronautica, 10(5-6), 269-275 (1983).
  • L. Margulis, and O. West, “Gaia and the Colonization of Mars,” GSA Today, 3(11), 277-291 (1993).
  • M.M. Marinova, C.P. McKay and H. Hashimoto, “Warming Mars using Artificial Super-Greenhouse Gases,” JBIS, 53, 235-240 (2000). ª
  • M.M. Marinova, C.P. McKay and H. Hashimoto, “Radiative-Convective Model of Warming Mars using Artificial Super-Greenhouse Gases,” J.Geophys.Res., 110, E03002, doi:10.1029/2004JE002306  (2005). ª
  • A. Marshall, “Ethics and the Extraterrestrial Environment,” Journal of Applied Philosophy, 10(2), 227-236 (1993).
  • J. McCarthy, “Chaos and Moving Mars to a Better Climate,” http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/future/mars.pdf 
  • C.R. McInnes, “Non-Keplerian Orbits for Mars Solar Reflectors,” JBIS, 55, 78-84 (2002). ª
  • C.R. McInnes, “Planetary Macro-Engineering Using Orbiting Solar Reflectors,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 215-250 Springer (2006).
  • C.P. McKay, “On Terraforming Mars,” Extrapolation, 23(4), Kent State University Press (1982).
  • C.P. McKay, “Terraforming Mars,” JBIS, 35, 427-433 (1982). ª
  • C.P. McKay, “Using Microorganisms to Make an Earth of Mars,” in Biotechnology on the Threshold of the XXI Century, Conference Proceedings, pp. 89-91, Moscow, (1989).
  • C.P. McKay, “Does Mars Have Rights? An Approach to the Environmental Ethics of Planetary Engineering,” in D. MacNiven (Ed.), Moral Expertise, pp. 184-197, Routledge, New York (1990). ª
  • C.P. McKay, and R.H. Haynes, “Should We Implant Life on Mars?” Sci. Am., 263(6), 144 (1990).
  • C.P. McKay, O.B. Toon, and J.F. Kasting, “Making Mars Habitable,” Nature, 352, 489-496 (1991). ª
  • C.P. McKay and C.R. Stoker, “Gaia and Life on Mars,” in S.H. Schneider and P.J. Boston, (Eds), Scientists on Gaia, pp. 375-381, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA (1991).
  • C.P. McKay, “Restoring Mars to Habitable Conditions: Can we? Should we? Will we?” Journal of the Irish Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, 22(1), 17-19 (1993).
  • C.P. McKay, and R.H. Haynes, “Implanting Life on Mars as a Long Term Goal for Mars Exploration,” in T.R. Meyer (Ed.), The Case for Mars IV, AAS Science and Technology Series, Vol. 90, pp. 209-216,  Univelt, San Diego (1997). 
  • C.P. McKay, “Bringing Life to Mars,” in The Future of Space Exploration., Sci. Am. Quarterly, 10(1), 52-57 (1999).ª
  • C.P. McKay and M.M. Marinova, “The Physics, Biology and Environmental Ethics of Making Mars Habitable,” Astrobiology,  1, 89-109 (2001). ª
  • C.P. McKay, “Biology and the Future of Mars,” in Abstracts from the Astrobiology Science Conference 2004, International Journal of Astrobiology Supplement, p.8 (2004).
  • R.W. Miller, “An Ecological Approach to Terraforming, Mapping the Dream,” in R.M. Zubrin and M. Zubrin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society, Part III, pp. 937-984, Univelt, San Diego (1999).ª
  • R.W. Miller, “Terraforming: An Ethical Perspective,” in K.R. McMillen (Ed.), The Case for Mars VI, pp. 407-440, Univelt, San Diego (2000). 
  • L. Montabone, “Future Climate Changes on Mars: Science Fiction or Possible Reality?” in L.A. Costas (Ed.), Planet Mars Research Focus, in press, Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, (2008). Text. Book information.
  • C.R. Morgan, “Terraforming with Nanotechnology,” JBIS, 47, 311-318 (1994).
  • A.C. Muscatello and M.G. Houts, “Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium: A Resource for Exploring and Terraforming Mars,” in K.R. McMillen (Ed.), The Case for Mars VI, pp. 483-490, Univelt, San Diego (2000). 
  • M.F. Norton, “Making Venus Habitable, The Promise of Planetary Engineering,” in Proceedings of the First Western Space Conference at Santa Monica, Part II, pp. 1011-1020, Western Peurdreck Co, Hollywood, CA (1970).
  • M.D. Nussinov, Zemlya i Vselennaya, 6, 57-61 (1981). (In Russian.)
  • M.D. Nussinov, S.V. Lysenko and V.V. Patrikeev, “Terraforming of Mars Through Terrestrial Microorganisms and Nanotechnological Devices,” JBIS, 47, 319-320 (1994).
  • J.E. Oberg, “Terraforming,” in M.H. Hart, and B. Zuckerman, Extraterrestrials: Where Are They? pp. 62-65, Pergamon Press, New York (1982).
  • R.D. Pinson, “Ethical Considerations for Terraforming Mars,” Environmental Law Reporter, 32, 11333-11341 (2002).
  • J.B. Pollack and C. Sagan, “Planetary Engineering”, in J. Lewis, and M. Matthews (Eds), Resources of Near-Earth Space, pp. 921-950, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, (1994).
  • D.R. Popoviciu, “Terraforming Mars via the Bosch Reaction: Turning Gas Giants Into Stars,” Journal of Cosmology, 12, 3980-3991 (2010). http://journalofcosmology.com/Mars102.html
  • J.F. Potter, “Seeking a New Home: Some Thoughts on the Longer Trem Trends in Planetary Environmental Engineering,” The Environmentalist, 20, 191-194 (2000).
  • H.W. Renn, “Terraforming the Moon: A Viable Step in the Colonization of the Solar System?” IAC-02-IAA.13.2.08, 53rd International Astronautical Congress, Houston, TX (2002).
  • N. N. Ridder, D.C. Maan and L. Summerer, “Terraforming Mars: Generating Greenhouse Gases to Increase Martian Surface Temperatures,” Journal of Cosmology, 12, 4100-4112 (2011). http://journalofcosmology.com/Mars149.html
  • K.I. Roy, R.G. Kennedy III, and D.E. Fields, “Shell Worlds: An Approach to Terraforming Moons, Small Planets and Plutoids,” JBIS, 62, 32-38 (2009).
  • C. Sagan, “The Planet Venus,” Science, 133, 849-858 (1961).
  • C. Sagan, “Planetary Engineering on Mars,” Icarus, 20, 513-514 (1973). ª
  • T.L. Segura, C.P. McKay and O.B. Toon, “An Impact-Triggered Runaway Greenhouse on Mars,” in Abstracts from the Astrobiology Science Conference 2004, International Journal of Astrobiology Supplement, p.78 (2004).
  • N.N. Semenov, “Changes in the Martian Atmosphere,” in B.P. Konstantinov and V.D. Pekelis (Eds), Inhabited Space, Part I, p. 192, NASA TT-F-819, Feb. (1975).
  • A.G. Smith, “Transforming Venus by Induced Overturn,” JBIS, 42, 571-576 (1989).
  • A.G. Smith, “Time, Ice and Terraforming,” JBIS, 46, 305-310 (1993).
  • G.A. Smith, “Ethics of Terraforming: A Practical System,” in R.M. Zubrin and M. Zubrin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society, Part III, pp. 985-1001, Univelt, San Diego (1999).
  • R.  Sparrow, “The Ethics of Terraforming,” Environmental Ethics, 21(3), 227-245 (1999).
  • R.L.S. Taylor, “Paraterraforming: The Worldhouse Concept,” JBIS, 45, 341-352 (1992). ª
  • R.L.S. Taylor, “Why Mars? Even Under the Condition of Critical Factor Constraint Engineering, Technology May Permit the Establishment and Maintenance of an Inhabitable Ecosystem on Mars,” Adv. Space Res., 22(3), 421-432 (1998).
  • R.L.S. Taylor, “Paraterraforming: Construction, Energy, Environment and Hazard Control Strategies for a Quasi-Global Martian Worldhouse,” in P.J. Boston (Ed.), The Case for Mars V, pp. 367-395, Univelt, San Diego (2000).
  • R.L.S. Taylor, “The Mars Atmosphere Problem: Paraterraforming – The Worldhouse Solution,” JBIS, 54, 236-249 (2001).
  • D.J. Thomas, “Biological Aspects of the Ecopoiesis and Terraformation of Mars: Current Perspectives and Research,” JBIS, 48, 415-418 (1995).
  • D.J. Thomas, “The Formation of Martian Ecosystems: Rationale and Directions for Future Research,” in K.R. McMillen (Ed.), The Case for Mars VI, pp. 445-451, Univelt, San Diego (2000). 
  • F. Turner, “The Invented Landscape,” in A.D. Baldwin et al. (Eds), Beyond Preservation: Restoring and Inventing Landscapes, pp. 35-66, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis (1994). ª
  • F. Turner, “Terraforming and the Coming Charm Industries,” Adv. Space Res., 22(3), 433-439 (1998).
  • R.R. Vondrak, “Creation of an Artificial Lunar Atmosphere,” Nature, 248, 657-659 (1974).
  • R.R. Vondrak, “Creation of an Artificial Atmosphere on the Moon,” in Advances in Engineering Science, Vol 3, NASA CP-2001, 1215-1224 (1976).
  • P. Whittome, “Terraforming Mars – Waterfield Reservoir Management,” in R.M. Zubrin and M. Zubrin (Eds.), Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society, Part III, pp. 1003-1018, Univelt, San Diego (1999).ª
  • P.F. York, “The Ethics of Terraforming” Philosophy Now, 38, 6-9 (2002). 
  • Y.L. Yung and W.B. DeMore, “Terraforming Mars,” in Photochemistry of Planetary Atmopsheres, Section 7.5, pp. 279-280, Oxford University Press (1999).
  • R.M. Zubrin, “The Economic Viability of Mars Colonization,” JBIS, 48, 407-414 (1995). ª
  • R.M. Zubrin and C.P. McKay, “Technological Requirements for Terraforming Mars,” JBIS, 50, 83-92 (1997). ª

2.3 ARTICLES

  • B. Adelman and S.J. Adelman, “The Case for Planetary Engineering,” Space World, Vol. S-6-222, pp. 20 ff., June/July (1982).
  • S.J. Adelman, “Terraforming Venus,” Spaceflight, 24, 50-53, (1982).
  • Anon, “Interview with NASA’s Chris McKay: Terraforming Mars in The Second Age of Exploration,” 21st Century Science and Technology, 5(2), 35-40 (1992).
  • G. Benford, “The Future of the Jovian System,” Issac Asimov’s Science Fiction Magazine, 11(8), 62-81 (1987).
  • A. Berry, “Venus, The Hell-World,” and “Making it Rain in Hell,” Chapters 6 & 7 in The Next Ten Thousand Years, New American Library (1984).
  • P. Cohen, “Terraforming Mars. Philip Cohen Reports from a NASA Meeting on making the Red planet Habitable,” New Scientist, 168(2261), 22 (2000).
  • B. Darrach, S. Petranek and A. Hollister, “Mars: Bringing a Dead World to Life,” LIFE, 14(5), 24-38 (1991).
  • F.J. Dyson, Disturbing the Universe, Chapter 18, Harper and Row Ltd, London (1979).
  • M. Freeman, “Terraforming Mars to Create a New Earth,” 21st Century Science and Technology, 13(4), 52-57 (2000-2001).
  • M.J. Fogg, “Stellifying Jupiter,” Analog, CIX(10), 73-83 (1989).
  • M.J. Fogg, “The Problem of Terraforming,” Spaceflight, 33(7), 244-247 (1991).
  • M.J. Fogg, “Once and Future Mars,” Analog, CXI(1&2), 109-122 (1991).
  • S.L. Gillett, “Second Planet, Second Earth,” Analog, CIV(12), 64-78 (1984).
  • S.L. Gillett, “The Postdiluvian World,” Analog, CV(11), 40-58 (1985).
  • S.L. Gillett, “Inward Ho!” Analog, CIX(13), 62-72 (1989).
  • S.L. Gillett, “Refuelling a Rundown Planet,” Analog, CXI(10), 81-77 (1991).
  • S.L. Gillett, “Titan as the Abode of Life,” Analog, CXII(13), 40-55 (1992).
  • S.L. Gillett, “Red Planet, Green Planet,” Amazing, pp. 66-68, Jun (1992).
  • S.L. Gillett, “The (Re)Wetting of Venus,” Amazing, pp. 64-67, Jul (1992).
  • S.L. Gillett, “The Ethics of Terraforming,” Amazing, pp. 72-74, Aug (1992).
  • J.A. Hiscox and M.J. Fogg, “Terraforming Mars: Scientists Discuss the Feasibility of Making Mars Habitable,” Spaceflight, 43(4), 153-155 (2001).
  • J.F. Kross, “Heaven from Hell,” Ad Astra, 4(3), 22-24 (1992).
  • J.E. Lovelock, “The Second Home,” Chapter 8 in The Ages of Gaia, Oxford University Press (1988).
  • A. Marshall, “Another Green World?” Quest, 1(3), 38-50 (1997).
  • C.P. McKay, “Terraforming: Making an Earth of Mars,” The Planetary Report, VII(6), 26-27 (1987).
  • C.P. McKay, “Let’s Put Martian Life First,” The Planetary Report, XXI(4), 4-5 (2001).
  • O. Morton, “Life on Mars: The Terraformer’s Dream,” The Economist, 337(7946), 117-120 (1995-96).
  • J.E. Oberg, “Colony on the Planet Epaphos,” Star and Sky, p. 16, March (1980).
  • “Pioneers and Settlers,” Chapter 2 in Starbound, Voyage Through the Universe Series, Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia (1992).
  • M. Savage, “Elysium,” Chapter 5 in The Millenial Project, Empyrean Publishing, Denver (1993).
  • R.P. Terra, “Islands in the Sky: Human Exploration and Settlement of the Oort Cloud,” Analog, CXI, 69-85 (1991).
  • F. Turner, “Life on Mars. Cultivating a Planet – and Ourselves,” Harper’s Magazine, 279(1671), 33-40 (1990); also in Tempest, Flute and Oz: Essays on the Future, Persea Books, New York (1991).
  • R.M. Zubrin, “The Outer Solar System and the Human Future,” Ad Astra, 5(2), 18-23 (1993).
  • R.M. Zubrin and C.P. McKay, “A World for the Winning: The Exploration and Terraforming of Mars,” The Planetary Report, XII(5), 16-19 (1992).
  • R.M. Zubrin and C.P. McKay, “Pioneering Mars,” Ad Astra, 4(6), 34-41 (1992).
  • R.M. Zubrin and C.P. McKay, “Terraforming Mars,” Analog, CXIV(5), 70-87 (1994).

2.4 SELECTED FICTION

  • G. Benford, The Jupiter Project, TOR Books, New York (1975).
  • G. Benford, Against Infinity, New English Library, Sevenoaks (1984).
  • A.C. Clarke, The Sands of Mars, Sidgewick and Jackson Ltd. (1951).
  • G. Dozois (Ed.), Worldmakers: SF Adventures in Terraforming, St Martin’s Griffin, New York (2001).
  • R. Heinlein, Farmer in the Sky, First published 1950; Modern Edition, Victor Gollancz Ltd, London (1990).
  • J.E. Lovelock and M. Allaby, The Greening of Mars, Warner Books, New York (1984).
  • K.S. Robinson, Red Mars, Bantam Spectra Books, New York (1993).
  • K.S. Robinson, Green Mars, Harper Collins Publishers, London (1993).
  • K.S. Robinson, Blue Mars, Harper Collins Publishers, London (1996).
  • P. Sargent, Venus of Dreams, Bantam Spectra Books, New York (1986).
  • P. Sargent, Venus of Shadows, Bantam Spectra Books, New York (1990).
  • P. Sargent, Child of Venus, in press, Eos/Harper Collins (2001).
  • O. Stapledon, Last and First Men, First Published 1930; Modern Edition, Pelican Books London (1987).
  • F. Turner, Genesis, Saybrook Publishing Company, Dallas (1988).

 

3. ASTROPHYSICAL ENGINEERING / OTHER.

3.1 NON-FICTION BOOKS.

  • V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, Springer (2006).
  • M. Beech, Rejuvenating the Sun and Avoiding Other Global Catastrophes, Springer, New York (2008).

3.2 TECHNICAL PAPERS.

  • V. Badescu, “On the radius of the Dyson’s Sphere”, Acta Astronautica, 36, 135-138 (1995).
  • V. Badescu and R.B. Cathcart, “Stellar Engines for Kardashev’s Type II Civilisations,” JBIS, 53, 297-306 (2000).
  • V. Badescu and R.B. Cathcart, “Use of Class A and Class C Stellar Engines to Control Sun Movement in the Galaxy,” Acta Astronautica, 58, 119-129 (2006).
  • V. Badescu and R.B. Cathcart, “Stellar Engines and the Controlled Movement of the Sun,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 251-279, Springer (2006).
  • M. Beech, “Blue Stragglers as Indicators of Extraterrestrial Civilizations,” Earth, Moon and Planets, 49, 177-186 (1990).
  • M. Beech, “Aspects of an Asteroengineering Option,” JBIS, 46, 317-322 (1993).
  • M. Beech, “Oscillation and Settling Times for Black-Holes Placed within Planetary and Stellar Interiors, JBIS, 60, 257-262 (2007).
  • M. Beech, “A Dark Sun Rising: It’s a Solar Wrap,” JBIS, 63, 104-107 (2010).
  • P. Birch, “Supramundane Planets,” JBIS, 44, 169-182 (1991).
  • P. Birch,, “How to Move a Planet,” JBIS, 46, 314-316 (1993).
  • R.B. Cathcart, “A Megastructural End to Geological Time,” JBIS, 36, 291-297 (1983).
  • M.M. Cirkovic, “Macro-Engineering in the galactic Context: A New Agenda for Astrobiology,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 281-300, Springer (2006).
  • D.R. Criswell, “Solar System Industrialization: Implications for Interstellar Migrations,” in R. Finney and E.M. Jones (Eds), Interstellar Migration and the Human Experience, pp. 50-87, University of California Press, Berkeley (1985).
  • F.J. Dyson, “Gravitational Machines,” in A.G.W. Cameron (Ed.), Interstellar Communication, pp. 115-120, W.A. Benjamin Inc., New York (1963).
  • F.J. Dyson, “The Search for Extraterrestrial Technology,” in R.E. Marshak (Ed.), Perspectives in Modern Physics, pp. 641-655, Interscience Publishers, New York, (1966).
  • F.J. Dyson, “The World the Flesh and the Devil,” Section IV, “Big Trees,” in C. Sagan (Ed.), Communication With Extraterrestrial Intelligence – CETI, pp. 380-383, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA (1973).
  • K.A. Ehricke, “A Long-Range Perspective on Some Fundamental Aspects of Interstellar Evolution,” JBIS, 28, 722 (1975).
  • M.J. Fogg, “Stellifying Jupiter: A First Step to Terraforming the Galilean Satellites,” JBIS, 42, 587-592 (1989).
  • M.J. Fogg, “Solar Exchange as a Means of Ensuring the Long Term Habitability of the Earth,” Specul. Sci. Tech., 12, 153-157 (1989).
  • D. Froman, “The Earth as a Man-Controlled Space Ship,” Physics Today, 15, 19-22 (1962).
  • M. Hempsell, “Some Speculations on the Construction of Artificial Planets,” JBIS, 58, 392-397 (2005).
  • D.G. Korycansky, G. Laughlin and F.C. Adams, “Astronomical Engineering: A Strategy for Modifying Planetary Orbits,” Astrophysics and Space Science, 275, 349-366 (2001). http://www.ucolick.org/~kory/ 
  • D.G. Korycansky, “Astroengineering, or How to save the Earth in Only One Billion Years,” Rev. Mex. A.A. (Serie de Conferencias), 22, 117-120 (2004).
  • M. Mautner, “Directed Panspermia: A Technical Evaluation of Seeding Nearby Solar Systems,” JBIS, 32, 419-422 (1979).
  • M. Mautner, “Directed Panspermia 2. Technological Advances Toward Seeding Other Solar Systems and the Foundation of Panbiotic Ethics,” JBIS, 48, 435-440 (1995).
  • M. Mautner, “Directed Panspermia 3. Strategies and Motivation for Seeding Star-Forming Clouds,” JBIS, 50, 105-108 (1997).
  • M. Mautner, “Directed Panspermia, Astroethics and our Cosmological Future, in Abstracts from the Astrobiology Science Conference 2004, International Journal of Astrobiology Supplement, p.116 (2004).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Astronomical Engineering Revisited: Planetary Orbit Modification Using Solar Radiation Pressure,” Astrophysics and Space Science, 282, 765-772 (2002).
  • C.R. McInnes, “Planetary Macro-Engineering Using Orbiting Solar Reflectors,” in V. Badescu, R.Cathcart and R.Schuiling (Eds.), Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future, Water Science and Technology Library, Volume 54, 215-250 Springer (2006).
  • D.R. Popoviciu, “Terraforming Mars via the Bosch Reaction: Turning Gas Giants Into Stars,” Journal of Cosmology, 12, 3980-3991 (2010).
  • L.M. Shkadov, “Possibility of Controlling Solar System Motion in the Galaxy,” IAA-87-613 (1987).
  • M. Taube, “Future of the Terrestrial Civilization Over a Period of Billions of Years (Red Giant and Earth Shift,” JBIS, 35, 219-225 (1982).
  • M. Taube and W. Seifritz, “The Search for a strategy for Mankind to Survive the Solar Red Giant Catastrophe,” http://arxiv.org/abs/0811.4052 (2008).

3.3 POPULAR ARTICLES.

  • M.J. Fogg, “Astrophysical Engineering and the Fate of the Earth,” Analog, CX(6), 53-63 (1990).
  • L. Niven, “Bigger Than Worlds,” in A Hole In Space, pp. 111-126, Futura Publications, London (1974).

 

 

 

 

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